Prepare the disk partition
This step should be performed if you want to keep the system you have installed and use Linux simultaneously with it. If you decide to transfer your computer to Linux completely or Install the OS on an empty hard disk, skip the step.
This item only applies to new computers with preinstalled Windows 10, 8.1 or 8. These computers use the UEFI bootloader, which will NOT allow you to boot any system other than Windows.
To fix this, go to your computer’s BIOS settings and Disable the Secure Boot option. Then reboot. Done, you can now download and install other systems alongside your Windows.
Start Linux installation
Welcome to the Linux installer. We’ll take the Ubuntu distribution as an example. But the installation processes for Mint, openSUSE, Fedora, Debian, Manjaro and most other distributions are almost identical.
An exception is distributions that use a pseudo-graphic installer. The only serious difference between such an installer is that you have to select options using the buttons. Everything else is the same.
Select the language you want to use on the system and click “Install”. Then check the box “Install third party software” so that Linux can use proprietary drivers and codecs. The option “Download updates during installation” can be turned on or left off if you have a slow internet connection.
Boot Linux from media
Reboot and select your Linux stick or CD as bootable media. This is done differently on different computers. On Windows computers, the boot order can be determined using Esc, F9, or the BIOS menu. On Mac, this is done by long pressing the Option key.
Open Windows Disk Management Tool. Select the disk or partition from which you plan to cut some space to install Linux. For most distributions, 10 GB is more than enough. But if you plan on installing a lot of apps, take more. Right click on the partition and select Shrink Volume. Enter the size and click OK.
The process can take quite a long time, so please be patient.
When Disk Management finishes resizing partitions, an empty unallocated space appears on the disk, marked in black. We will install Linux there.
Later, if you don’t need Linux, you can delete partitions with it and give the freed space back to Windows using the same “Disk Management Tools”.
How to install Linux instead of the current system
So you’ve decided to install Linux instead of your current system (or on an empty hard disk). There are two options.
The installer will erase all data from your disk, create new partitions and install the system without bothering you with unnecessary questions. To do this, select “Erase Disk and Install Linux”. Save your files to another hard drive or cloud storage before performing a clean install.
Suitable if you want to set the sizes for your partitions yourself or, for example, create a separate partition for your files. To do this, select “Another option” and click “Continue”.
Linux will display what partitions you have on your computer. You can delete them, format or, conversely, DO NOT touch the sections with the information that you want to keep.
To install Linux instead of your system, select the partition with the installed system and remove it with the “-” button. Then create new partitions in the vacant space.
- Root partition for Linux system files. Select Ext4 file system and mount point /.
- A swap partition, or swap partition, comes in handy if you don’t have enough RAM, but a fast SSD. In the list of file systems, select “Swap Partition”.
- Home section where your files will be stored. Select Ext4 filesystem and / home mount point.
Click “Continue” and Confirm changes. The installer will erase the partitions you selected and create new ones in the vacant space.
This is a crucial stage at which you must be very careful.
The steps then differ depending on whether you want to install Linux next to your system or replace your system. DO NOT accidentally erase the disc if you want to leave your system.
You can allocate space for your Linux installation through the macOS “disk utility”. Select your drive and click on the icon “”, to create a partition for Linux. Creating a new section may take some time.
How to install Linux: detailed instructions
Now everyone can handle installing Ubuntu and other Linux distributions on Windows and macOS computers or without.
Linux can come in handy for many reasons. For example, your old computer cannot be upgraded to newer versions of Windows or macOS, or you need Linux-specific applications, or you are just curious to try a new one. Or maybe you just bought a new computer without an operating system and want to save money by choosing free Linux.
Installing Linux is easy. Of course, there are distributions like Arch, which is quite difficult to install for a beginner. But most modern distributions are very easy to install. Perhaps even easier and faster than Windows.
You can install Linux on computers running Windows and macOS, or on an empty hard drive. You can choose Linux as your main system or use it in parallel with your old system.
How to install an OS on a computer or laptop
To install Linux Ubuntu, you can use the CD install, which was popular in the past. But in view of the fact that now manufacturers of netbooks and laptops prefer to make them without disk drives, then installing the system from a USB flash drive is now more relevant. In addition, installation using this method Takes much less time, and the risks of damaging a USB device are much less than a CD.
OS installation is extremely simple, and in general it can be divided into the following stages:
- Copying or downloading an OS image;
- Creating a bootable USB flash drive with an operating system;
- Direct installation via BIOS menu;
- Completing the installation.
Now let’s consider all the stages in more detail.
Preparing for installation
First of all, you need to have a system image. To do this, go to the official Ubuntu website and download the distribution. There are currently two versions of Ubuntu 16.04 and Ubuntu 14.04 available. Before downloading the required version, you should pay attention to the compliance of the computer or laptop, or rather, their parameters to the technical requirements, since if you have outdated equipment, then the software of new versions may not work well with it.
After downloading the selected distribution, you should download the program, Using which you can create a bootable USB flash drive with A.S. The program is called Unetbootin, and it is free.
Before installing the distribution kit on the media, you need to format it to FAT 32. This is done to ensure that the installation from a USB flash drive goes without problems. It is also important to plug the flash drive into a properly working connector. To format the drive, insert it into the slot, go to “My Computer”, find a USB flash drive among the available devices and select “Format” from the context menu using the right mouse button. Be sure to specify the format “FAT 32”.
While the flash drive is being formatted, it will be useful to find out which key on your computer or laptop can call the Boot Menu. Since depending on the motherboard, the keys for calling may differ.
Benefits of Ubuntu OS
This operating system is absolutely free, as regards both the operating system itself and its updated and additional programs that you may need for comfortable work. It can easily become a complete replacement for Windows. This is why it is attractive to ordinary users.
Among the advantages are:
- Availability. as stated above, you can get it for free;
- High protection against viruses;
- Ease of use;
- Availability in many languages, including Russian;
- The presence of many free programs that are constantly being improved and updated;
- Support for users around the world;
- Large Russian-speaking community with a lot of information available.
Installing ubuntu from a USB flash drive to a computer or laptop
Ubuntu is an open source operating system (OS) based on Debian GNU / Linux. The creators of this OS made it as friendly as possible for an ordinary user, who is accustomed to using an OS of the Windows family in his daily life. Having looked at least at the Ubuntu website, you can see that the main thing for them is focus on simplicity and usability.
Booting ubuntu to a USB stick
Once the flash drive is formatted, you can start creating a bootable flash drive. One easy way to do this is to use the free Unetbootin application, which runs on the most commonly used operating systems: Windows, Mac O. S., Linux. You need to run it and, since this program does not require installation, a window will immediately appear with which you can work. Here we set the necessary settings.
First of all, you need to specify the path where the Ubuntu image is stored. Then select the type of drive (in this case it will be a USB drive) and select the appropriate boot device for the “media” parameter. This completes the setup, and you can Confirm image creation.
Now it remains only to wait for the completion of the process. During data recording, a window may appear informing that the process is NOT responding, or it may seem that the program is freezing. DO NOT pay attention to it.
The method described above is suitable for computers and laptops on which Windows is installed as the OS. If Linux of any version is already installed on the computer, then you can use another method to create a USB flash drive.
Open the desktop and find a special utility that is already built into the system. It is started by pressing the ALT and F2 keys and then typing “usb-creator-gtk”. Alternatively, you can use the Applications menu and select Create Boot Disk. Then you need to insert a flash drive into the USB port and specify the location of the ISO image in the program, as well as select the appropriate USB device. Then click “Create bootable disk”.
After the bootable USB drive is created, the next step is to install the OS on the computer. To do this, you need to insert a USB flash drive into the USB port and reboot. In the event that the installation of the operating system did NOT start automatically, then you will have to configure the PC boot from the flash drive. This is done in a few simple steps.
The first thing to do is to enter the BIOS (this is the I / O system, which determines the sequence of the PC boot process). Most often, in order to get into the BIOS, you need to turn on the computer and immediately, as soon as it starts to boot, press the Del or F2 button. Then go to the “Advanced” tab and set the “USB Device” in the “First Boot Device” line by the boot device.
You can also use the Boot Menu call after starting the system boot. The key will depend on the device manufacturer (motherboard or laptop). Using the “up-down” keys, select the “USB” item and press Enter.
After THESE manipulations with the BIOS, you can Exhale, since the most difficult stage is left behind, and in the installation window that appears, select the language and click “Install Ubuntu”.
After that, a new window will open, it indicates how much space is available on the Hard Drive, and indicates the presence of an Internet connection.
The next step is to select the installation option. There are several alternatives to choose from:
- Install Ubuntu as a second OS to the Windows already available on a personal computer;
- Remove the preinstalled operating system and install Ubuntu instead;
- Another option, in which you can install the OS by encrypting the records to increase the level of security when working on a PC, or create partitions on the Hard Disk and set their sizes yourself. This installation option can only be selected by advanced users.
To install Linux with the replacement of the current operating system, you need to select item 2. Next, select a partition on the Hard disk that has at least 10 GB (usually it is drive C). It is important to note that before this, all important information from this section should be transferred to a removable drive or to another section, since after the installation of linux all information will be irretrievably lost.
The next steps will include selecting regional standards such as keyboard layout and time zone, and creating a user and password for logging in. After the installation process is complete, you will need to remove the bootable USB flash drive and restart your computer.
That’s it, the installation is complete. Now you can use the operating system installed on the PC, customize the design and download additional applications for work, since Ubuntu comes with a minimal set of applications.
Step-by-step installation of Ubuntu on a computer as a second or primary operating system
In fact, installing Ubuntu on a computer (I’m not talking about its subsequent configuration, installing drivers, etc.) is one of the simplest tasks. Immediately after booting from a USB flash drive, you will see an offer to select a language and:
- Start Ubuntu without installing it on your computer;
- Install Ubuntu.
Choose “Install Ubuntu”
We choose the second option, do not forget to pre-select the Russian language (or some other, if it is more convenient for you).
The next window will be titled Preparing to Install Ubuntu. It will ask you to make sure that the computer has enough free space on the hard drive and, in addition, is connected to the Internet. In many cases, if you DO NOT use a Wi-Fi router at home and use the services of a provider with an L2TP, PPTP or PPPoE connection, the Internet will be disconnected at this stage. Nothing wrong. It is needed in order to install all Ubuntu updates and add-ons from the Internet at the initial stage. But this can be done later. Also at the bottom you will see the item “Install this third party software”. It has to do with codecs for MP3 playback and is best noted. The reason why this clause is made separately is that the license of this codec is NOT completely “Free”, and only free software is used in Ubuntu.
At the next step, you will need to select the Ubuntu installation option:
- Next to Windows (in this case, when you turn on the computer, a menu will be displayed in which you can choose what you are going to work in. Windows or Linux).
- Replace the existing OS with Ubuntu.
- Another option (is a self-partitioning of the hard drive, for advanced users).
For the purposes of this tutorial, I choose the most commonly used option. installing a second Ubuntu operating system, leaving Windows 7.
The next window will display the partitions of your hard drive. By moving the separator between them, you can specify how much space you allocate for the Ubuntu partition. It is also possible to independently perform the partitioning of the disk using the extended partition editor. However, if you are a novice user, I do not recommend contacting him (I told a couple of friends that there was nothing complicated there, they ended up without Windows, although the goal was different).
When you click “Install now”, you will be shown a warning that now new disk partitions will be created, as well as resizing of old ones, and this may take a long time (Depends on the degree of disk usage, as well as its fragmentation). Click “Continue”.
After some (different for different computers, but usually not long) you will be prompted to select regional standards for Ubuntu. time zone and keyboard layout.
The next step is to create an Ubuntu user and password. Nothing complicated here. After filling, click “Continue” and the installation of Ubuntu itself begins on the computer. Soon you will see a message stating that the installation is complete and asking you to restart your computer.
Installing Ubuntu from a USB stick
Apparently, you decided to install Ubuntu on your computer and for some reason, for example, due to the lack of blank discs or a drive for reading discs, you want to use a bootable USB flash drive. Ok, I’ll help you. In this manual, the following steps will be considered in order: creating an Ubuntu Linux installation flash drive, installing a boot from a USB flash drive in the BIOS of a computer or laptop, the process of installing an operating system on a computer as a second or main OS.
This Walkthrough is suitable for all current Ubuntu versions, namely 12.04 & 12.10, 13.04 & 13.10. With the introductory part, I think you can finish and proceed directly to the process itself. I also recommend getting to know the way to run Ubuntu “inside” Windows 10, 8 and Windows 7 using Linux Live USB Creator.
How to make a USB stick to install Ubuntu
I am assuming that you already have an ISO image with the version of Ubuntu Linux you need. If this is not the case, then you can download it for free from the sites Ubuntu.com or Ubuntu.Ru. Anyway, we’ll need it.
I previously wrote an article Bootable Ubuntu USB, which describes how to make an installation drive with it in two ways. using Unetbootin or from Linux itself.
You can use the specified instructions, but personally I myself use the free program WinSetupFromUSB for similar purposes, so here I will show the procedure with the implementation of this program. (You can download WinSetupFromUSB 1.0 here: http://www.Winsetupfromusb.com/downloads/).
Run the program (the example is given for the latest version 1.0, released on October 17, 2013 and available at the above link) and do the following simple steps:
- Select the required USB drive (Please note that all other data from it will be deleted).
- Check Auto format it with FBinst.
- Check Linux ISO / Other Grub4dos compatible ISO and specify the path to the Ubuntu disk image.
- A dialog box will appear asking what to name this item in the boot menu. Write something like Ubuntu 13.04.
- Press the “Go” button, Confirm that you are aware that all data from the USB drive will be deleted and Wait until the process of creating a bootable flash drive is completed.
This is done. The next step is to go into the computer BIOS and install the boot from the newly created distribution kit there. Many people know how to do this, and for those who do not know, I refer to the instructions How to boot from a USB flash drive into BIOS (opens in a new tab). After the settings are saved, and the computer restarts, you can proceed directly to the installation of Ubuntu.
That’s all. Now, after the computer has been rebooted, you will see the menu for choosing the boot of Ubuntu (in various options) or Windows, and then, after entering the user password, the operating system interface itself.
The next important steps are to set up an Internet connection, and let the OS download the necessary packages (in which it will inform itself).
Installing Ubuntu from a USB stick
Greetings to all those who decided to join the humanistic philosophy and install the Linux Ubuntu operating system on their computer. The Ubuntu operating system has its advantages over Windows 8, which we reviewed recently. If the installation of Windows 8 does not raise questions for many users, then the installation of Ubuntu has some differences and difficulties. That is why below we will Give you instructions for installing Ubuntu from a USB flash drive in pictures.
Before installing Ubuntu, we recommend testing it without installing, running this operating system from a flash drive or disk. What for? If you have never used or have not worked with the latest versions of Ubuntu for several years, then it has changed quite a lot, so you need to try it out before changing the system. If you like Ubuntu and want to completely abandon Windows, then we proceed to prepare its installation.
Preparing to Install Ubuntu
The preparation process is a mandatory stage, which consists of several procedures: downloading the installation image, writing it to the media, and also re-saving data from the Hard Disk.
Downloading the Ubuntu installation image
You can download the distro image using a torrent by visiting the download page on the official Ubuntu website.
The experts of the Masterservis24.Ru website recommend downloading the image from the “Newest Release” section marked “Raring Ringtail”, where you will also need to select the desired operating system bit (x32 or x64) and load the image itself.
How to burn an Ubuntu image to a USB flash drive?
Almost all of our readers know how to write an image to a disk, but hardly anyone wrote an image of an operating system to a USB flash drive. Writing an image to a USB flash drive is quite simple, for this you need the Universal USB Installer program, which can be downloaded absolutely free on the program’s official website. The installation of this program will NOT take a long time, you just need to specify the path where the program will be installed, as well as Read and accept the terms of the licensed agreement. Then, launched the program, you will see the window, which is located in the picture below.
Now we directly proceed to the process of recording the image to the USB flash drive:
- Step one. First, you need to select the operating system that you want to write to the USB flash drive.
- Step two. Point the program to the Ubuntu image.
- Step three. Specify the letter under which the USB flash drive you need to record the image is located.
- Step four. Check the correctness of the settings and click on the “Create” button.
In a few minutes, the Ubuntu distribution will be written to the USB flash drive, and you can start installing the operating system. It is important to note that to record an image, you will need an 8GB flash drive, while you need to choose the right flash drive according to the parameters, we already wrote about this in one of our articles.
If you decide to completely switch to Linux Ubuntu, we recommend formatting the entire hard drive for convenient work with the operating system, since the ext4 file system it uses differs from NTFS in its structure. We will tell you more about this in the article titled: How to Format a Hard Drive. In order to completely format the hard disk, re-save all your data from the D disk to a third-party media (for example, DWD disks) in advance. If you DO NOT want to format the Hard disk partition with data, then we leave it, re-saving only the data from the disk “C”.
Boot Loader Configuration in BIOS
The final stage of preparation for installation will be configuring the bootloader in the BIOS, in which it will be necessary to install the USB flash drive as the primary device for booting, and the hard disk as a secondary one. To do this, insert the USB flash drive into the USB connector of the computer, restart the PC and hold down the key “Delete” on keyboard. In the BIOS menu that appears, select the “Boot” option. In the “1st Boot Device” field, specify “USB-HDD”, and in the “2nd Boot Device” field. “Hard Drive”. Then exit the BIOS by selecting “Save and Exit”. When all of the Above actions are performed, we proceed to the process of installing the system.
Installing Linux Ubuntu
The Ubuntu installation will begin with a welcome screen, where you first need to select a language. Here you can try running Ubuntu from a USB stick to test it without installing by clicking on the “Try Ubuntu” button. To install the operating system, click on the “Install Ubuntu” button, after which you will need to make some settings before installing the OS directly.
First you need to confirm that your computer:
- Has at least 5.3GB of free disk space. This is how much free space is needed on the partition to install Ubuntu and its correct work on the computer.
- Electricity connection. If you are installing this operating system on a laptop, then make sure that it is connected to power.
- Connected to the Internet. In principle, an Internet connection when installing Ubuntu is not necessary, but it is highly advisable to download decent updated system components.
In addition, you can check the box so that during installation the latest updates of the operating system are downloaded, which we actually recommend doing. We also advise you to check the second paragraph so that third-party software is installed. After that click on the “Continue” button.
Now we have moved on to the most difficult stage of the installation, in which you need to take special care: setting up the disk and choosing a partition to install. If you are installing Ubuntu for the first time on a new computer, where there is still no information of yours (i.e. documents, video and audio files you need, etc.) or you want to clean your computer from unnecessary system files and viruses (with all the necessary information is copied from drive C and D to external media), then we recommend clicking “Erase disk and install Ubuntu”, where the installer will erase the entire hard drive and make its optimal settings. After selecting the Above item, click on the “Continue” button. For more information about self-configuring a disk, see the article: How to partition a hard disk.
Next, you need to indicate the place where you are. This can be done by selecting your location on the map or by writing the name of a nearby major city. After that, you need to click on the “Continue” button.
The last thing you will need to specify:
- Your name. This is the name of your account on the system. You can enter either the name or any desired nickname. Your name must be entered in Latin characters.
- The name of your computer. You also need to enter the desired computer name to identify it on the network.
- Enter your username. Username is the name of the superuser account in the system (in fact, the name of the administrator), through which changes will be made to the system settings and the installation of programs.
- Set and confirm a password. To access the superuser account, as well as to enter the system, you need to enter a password, after which it must be repeated on the bottom line. The password can include upper and lower case Latin characters, as well as numbers and special characters.
If, besides you, no one else has access to a computer or laptop, then we recommend setting the point opposite the item “Logs on to the system automatically”, that is, so that, when you turn on the computer or laptop, you do not need to enter a password so that the desktop starts immediately. If you want to protect yourself and protect your data from unauthorized access, then leave the dot in front of the item “require a password to enter the system”.
For the safety of your data, you can check the box next to the “encrypt my home folder” item, so that all files in the user’s home folder will be encrypted. In turn, we do not recommend the home folder without special need for ciphers, since if the operating system fails, you will NOT be able to restore your encrypted data. After that click on the “Continue” button.
From this moment, the direct installation of the Linux Ubuntu operating system will begin. The installer will format the hard disk, create partitions necessary for the system to work and copy OS files.
While the installation of the operating system is in progress, you will be shown a slideshow showing the innovation of the latest version of the Ubuntu operating system.
The first slide will tell in the application center and in a large number of programs that you can install on your computer.
The second slide talks about the Rhythmbox music player.
The next slide will tell you about the graphics applications included with the system.
Next, you will be told about the cloud service Ubuntu One.
The slides will also inform about the programs and supported applications for Internet access.
Then there will be a separate slide dedicated to the office suite LibereOffice, which is analogous to Microsoft Office, but less successful.
The last slide will tell you about some of the system customization options.
At the end of the slideshow, you will be given links to Ubuntu user support resources, where you can get answers to your questions.
After the system installation is complete, the installer will ask you to restart your computer. To do this, click on the “Restart” button.
This is how the Ubuntu boot screen looks. simple and pretty. The desktop will load in a few seconds.
The desktop consists of the taskbar at the top and the quick access panel on the left.
Immediately after installation, if your computer or laptop is connected to the Internet, you will be prompted to install the latest updates. To install them, click on the icon glowing below with the letter “A” in the center. After installing updates, the system will be fully installed and ready to work, you just need to configure it.
To configure the system, click on the gear and wrench icon. In the window that opens, you can configure all the necessary parameters.
Now you know how to install Linux Ubuntu from a USB stick and can do it yourself.